Human Genome Project and its Result

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To start the Human Genome Project, the scientists needed to know all about genes. We all know that genes contain vital information for everyday life functions. To be more specific many genes hold data needed for the creation of proteins. In order for the proteins to be made the genetic code is used to translate the genetic sequence into protein sequence. They also needed to know about gene splicing, otherwise known as recombinant DNA and genetic engineering. Gene splicing involves cutting out a piece of DNA and replacing it with a new one. To be more precise, a specific restriction enzyme will split apart a certain strand of DNA leaving behind a gap in the genetic code. When a new strand of DNA is added, it takes the place of the binds to the ends of the DNA strands that were originally cut. Another enzyme called ligase is used in the repair process. Once the new DNA is in place, the function of the gene changes. In cases where a defective gene is repaired, the new gene will begin functioning correctly, producing the appropriate enzymes for its type.

The Genome project was used to map the entire human genome. They needed first to know how to map chromosomes. Gene and chromosomal mapping involves identifying which gene belongs to which chromosome. For example, the red-green color blindness gene is carried on one of the x chromosomes. Also, they couldn't immediately start with humans, they first had to use other organisms. The organisms they used were: Saccharomyces Cerevisia (yeast), Caenorhabditis Elegans (roundworm), Drosophila Melanogaster (fruitfly), and Arabidopsis Thaliana (small plant). From there, they were able to start using human cell lines to map the human genome.

The Human Genome Project officially ended in 2003, however private studies of the human genome still go one today. In the end, the overall outcome of the Human Genome Project was a breakthrough in the scientific world. It was able to allow gene therapy to commence at full speed and to help those in need of it. The result of the Human Genome Project held many uses in the world. These included molecular medicine, microbial genomics, risk assessment, bioarcheology, anthropology, evolution, human migration, forensics, agriculture, livestock breeding, and bioprocessing. However, with all of these many beneficial outcomes, the project did raise some ethical issues. People thought there are ethical problems with genetic testing, that there was not enough fairness in the results, and that the results should be kept confidential.

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Sources:

-http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/IE/Intro_The_Human_Genome.html -http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/IE/Short_History_of_Mapping.html -[[http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3899/is_199907/ai_n8862090 nhttp://www.dof.hmc.edu/hgp/]]
-http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/timeline.shtml -http://www.futurist.com/archives/science-and-technology/mapping-ourselves-the-human-genome-project/ -http://genome.gsc.riken.go.jp/hgmis/project/benefits.html